Punjab is a state in the north-west region of India, surrounded by other states such as Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Himachal Pradesh in the east, Haryana in the south, Rajasthan in the southwest and the Pakistani province of Punjab in the west. Punjab is located in an area of 50,362 km2, extending from the latitudes 29.30° north to 32.32° north and longitudes 73.55° East to 76.50° East. Majority of the Punjab lies in a very fertile, sediment plain with several rivers and an in depth irrigation canal system. A belt of undulating hills extends along the northeastern part of the state at the foot of the Himalayas. Its average elevation is three hundred meters on top of water level, with a variety from one hundred eighty meters within the southwest to over five hundred meters round the northeast border.
The southwest of the state is dry, eventually merging into the Thar Desert. The Shiwalik Hills extend on the northeastern part of the state at the foot of the chain. The soil characteristics area unit influenced to a restricted extent by the geography, plant life and parent rock. The variation in profile characteristics area unit way more pronounced attributable to the regional climatic variations. Punjab is split into 3 distinct regions on the idea of soil types: southwestern, central, and eastern.
Punjab’s climate is characterized by extreme hot and extreme cold conditions. Annual temperatures in Punjab vary from one °C to forty six °C (min/max), however will reach forty nine °C in summer and zero °C in winter. The northeast space lying close to the foothills of the chain receives significant rain, whereas the realm lying any south and west receives less rain and experiences higher temperatures. Average annual rain ranges between 960 millimeter within the sub mountain region and 460 millimeter within the plains.
Mainly, Punjab has 3 seasons:
1. Summer (From April to June): In this season, temperature typically rises as high as 100 Fahrenheit.
2. Monsoon (From July to September): this is the time when the majority of rainfall occurs.
3. Winter (From December to February): this is the time when temperatures typically fall as low as 0 °C.